Transducer play an important role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from a single form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.
This is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is transformed into an electrical energy.
Types of transducer:
There are 2 types of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: torque transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the best types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer would be the examples for the Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (including quartz) with an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used towards the structure, it creates an electric powered charge and, when an electric powered field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” hails from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way around. Basically any type of piezo mechanism could be called button load cell. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and for that reason can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness in the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also based on piezoelectrics. In this case, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while reducing the input power concurrently, i.e. the program is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is typically utilized to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors that are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not generate a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in hkjrzk energy and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good option for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when cutting edge performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated beneath the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of billions of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a wonderful choice for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to supply the controller the proper information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the best amplitude and phase output towards the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be load sensor, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any kind of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. According to Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it can cause. In case these forces are unwanted, another piezo mechanical system with a counter mass can be integrated and driven using a signal in the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out and the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is frequently utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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